Die Serie A ist die höchste Spielklasse im italienischen Profifußball. Ihr formeller Name lautet Lega Nazionale Professionisti Serie A. Sie gehört gemäß der. Der aktuelle Spieltag und die Tabelle der italienischen Serie A / Alle Spiele und Live Ergebnisse des 9. Spieltages im Überblick. Royal Bavarian Liga - Die Fussball Freizeitliga für Hobbymannschaften in München. Über Hobbykicker spielen in mehr als Freizeitteams aufgeteilt auf.
Cd Alaves — Sevilla. Ud Levante — Athletic Bilbao. Leganes Cd — Cf Getafe. Atletico Madrid — Cd Alaves. Villarreal — Celta Vigo. Espanyol — FC Barcelona.
Sd Eibar — Ud Levante. Sd Huesca — Real Madrid. Real Sociedad — Real Valladolid. Real Betis — Rayo Vallecano. Athletic Bilbao — Girona Cf.
Cd Alaves — Athletic Bilbao. Sevilla — Girona Cf. Espanyol — Real Betis. Ud Levante — FC Barcelona. Real Valladolid — Atletico Madrid.
Sd Huesca — Villarreal. Cf Getafe — Real Sociedad. Sd Eibar — Valencia. Celta Vigo — Leganes Cd. Real Madrid — Rayo Vallecano. Because heating and transmittance are not an issue in optical masks, a simple chromium mask can be substituted for the technically sophisticated X-ray mask.
However, UV LIGA is not as effective at producing precision molds and is thus used when cost must be kept low and very high aspect ratios are not required.
X-ray masks are composed of a transparent, low- Z carrier, a patterned high- Z absorber, and a metallic ring for alignment and heat removal.
Due to extreme temperature variations induced by the X-ray exposure, carriers are fabricated from materials with high thermal conductivity to reduce thermal gradients.
Currently, vitreous carbon and graphite are considered the best material, as their use significantly reduces side-wall roughness. Silicon, silicon nitride, titanium, and diamond are also in use as carrier substrates but not preferred, as the required thin membranes are comparatively fragile and titanium masks tend to round sharp features due to edge fluorescence.
Absorbers are gold, nickel, copper, tin, lead, and other X-ray absorbing metals. Masks can be fabricated in several fashions.
The most accurate and expensive masks are those created by electron beam lithography, which provides resolutions as fine as 0.
Due to the small size of the market, each LIGA group typically has its own mask-making capability. Future trends in mask creation include larger formats, from a diameter of mm to mm , and smaller feature sizes.
The starting material is a flat substrate, such as a silicon wafer or a polished disc of beryllium, copper, titanium, or other material. The substrate, if not already electrically conductive, is covered with a conductive plating base, typically through sputtering or evaporation.
The fabrication of high-aspect-ratio structures requires the use of a photoresist able to form a mold with vertical sidewalls. Thus the photoresist must have a high selectivity and be relatively free from stress when applied in thick layers.
The typical choice, poly methyl methacrylate PMMA is applied to the substrate by a glue-down process in which a precast, high-molecular-weight sheet of PMMA is attached to the plating base on the substrate.
The applied photoresist is then milled down to the precise height by a fly cutter prior to pattern transfer by X-ray exposure.
Because the layer must be relatively free from stress, this glue-down process is preferred over alternative methods such as casting. Further, the cutting of the PMMA sheet by the fly cutter requires specific operating conditions and tools to avoid introducing any stress and crazing of the photoresist.
A key enabling technology of LIGA is the synchrotron, capable of emitting high-power, highly collimated X-rays. This high collimation permits relatively large distances between the mask and the substrate without the penumbral blurring that occurs from other X-ray sources.
In the electron storage ring or synchrotron , a magnetic field constrains electrons to follow a circular path and the radial acceleration of the electrons causes electromagnetic radiation to be emitted forward.
The radiation is thus strongly collimated in the forward direction and can be assumed to be parallel for lithographic purposes. Updated to match es played on 5 November List of La Liga hat-tricks.
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